Mushroom Forage and Sightseeing Near Middleburg Florida

It’s been raining hard the past few days, and we have the mushrooms to show for it! There were too many types of mushrooms and other forage to share at once, so I’ll go over some of the best. It needs to be very wet for Exidia recisa, or the Jelly Roll fungus to be noticed in the woods. IMG_20181215_101449808A trained eye might find it when it’s dry, but it wouldn’t be easy. Several fungi are bundled into the common name of Jelly Roll. Exidia recisa is brownish to amber in color and looks like small ear like appendages when wet. They can grow closely together but don’t usually joining into one large mass. The fungus can be found on oak and possibly other hardwoods in Florida. This is an edible fungus though reportedly without a great deal of flavor of its own. The mushroom expands impressively when wet, so it can absorb whatever flavors or liquids it is cooked in. You’ll look for this fungus on fallen wood when the ground is wet.

Yellow staining milk cap

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Notice the milky yellow latex?

Milk caps are mushrooms that exude a latex when cut or damaged. Many are quite tasty, but some are toxic or too bitter to be edible by all but the most desperate. The taste and color of the latex are significant clues to edibility in this group of mushrooms. This yellow staining milk cap is one of the toxic milk caps. We won’t be eating it!

Deer Moss

 

This is a lichen, not a mushroom but is edible when processed correctly. Processing involves boiling and disposing of used water multiple times. If you needed carbs badly enough, you could get them from this. These are reported to be slow growers, and some that I saw were as tall as six or seven inches.

Cortinarius (Cort)

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Not and edible mushroom, but beautiful just the same. There are said to be over 2000 types of cortinarius. Some are said to be lethal, and as a general rule many foragers don’t eat cortinarius of any kind.

Lactifluus paradoxus

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I love the colors of paradoxus.

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These are beautiful mushrooms. They boast a number of different colors, often showing several colors on one mushroom. Blues, greens, greys, pinks, peach and salmon are all commonly seen. The salmon colored gills are distinctive. These are edible but require care to get back home in one piece. They are delicate and break into pieces easily.

Baby Gopher Tortoise

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If I head, nobody will see me!

No, this isn’t forage, but it is too cute and rare not to share! Saw this little one twice in a week’s time. Tiny little thing. Probably just dug one of its first of many tunnels in its hopefully long lifetime. These are endangered so look but leave them be when you see them. Take one of these for a pet, and it may be one of the costliest pets you ever get!

Lentinus

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This is the most beautiful lentinus I have ever seen! Not generally eaten, but beautiful to look at. Shiitake mushrooms are a part of this group, and they ARE eaten.

Russula (Possibly Murrill’s hixonii, a rare mushroom)

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The hixonnii russula were first noted around Newnan’s Lake just outside Gaineville, Florida. I camped there frequently while attending school. They are described by mycologist Arlene Bessette as “rare and beautiful.” The “Pepto” pink is a giveaway, as is their large size. Bessette reports that they smell like cake when drying. They may be found frequently in some areas, but overall are considered threatened. I find them in several areas from about 25 miles northeast of Gainesville to Pumpkin Hill Preserve southwest of Fernandina, Florida.

Coral Mushrooms

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You really must know these well to chance eating them, and I don’t know them well. I saw a lot of them, so I wish I was able to make a positively ID.

Turkey Tail Mushroom – Tramatese versicolor

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Look for white pores. If they aren’t white, it isn’t Turkey Tail.

We’ve written about this wonderful mushroom before. It has compounds which are currently used in the treatment of cancer and is said to be medicinal by many. Full disclosure, I know of no scientific studies that support that assertion and have read posts by experts saying the same. Don’t shoot the messenger. In the absence of proof that they do help, I don’t know of any that say they can’t help if you want to give them a try! I’ve made tea with them and found it quite enjoyable. You can find preparation methods online.

Clathrus columnatus, Stinkhorn

 

The first person to give these a common name didn’t need much creativity. They truly stink! They produce a smelly substance that stinks, which attracts flies, who carry the mushroom spores on their feet to new and exciting places. This particular variety looks really cool. These start out in an egg form underground before bursting from the sack to extend above ground. If you can find them in egg form, some are said to be edible. You can just see one busting out of its egg in the photo.

Amanita persicina

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Motherload of Amanita Persicina. Hundreds of them.

IMG_20181216_203402277This is a local variety of Amanita mushroom that is related to the Fly Agaric known in northern regions. It is the red mushroom with white spots on the cap that you see in so many pictures. Our local variety comes in shades from red to nearly tan when old. It is important to understand; the Amanita group contains some of the deadliest mushrooms known! When people imagine deadly mushrooms, they are often thinking about an Amanita even if they don’t know it. If you are not an expert, leave anything in the Amanita group alone! That being said, for the experts this is one of the Amanita mushrooms is toxic but tat can be prepared so as to be made relatively safe for consumption. I say relatively because this is also one of those mushrooms that reportedly sends some into an altered state of consciousness. The experience is reportedly not something to be taken lightly, and can include fits of projectile vomiting, sweats, and other less than pleasant physical symptoms. Some reportedly experience little to no physical effects, so I guess to quote Clint Eastwood as Dirty Harry, the question is “Do you feel lucky?” Not me! I’m guessing law enforcement would have something to say once you began processing for that purpose. If you are a binge tv watcher, this mushroom also plays a role in the Amazon series “Fortitude.” Great series if you haven’t seen it!

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Thanks!

Referenced Arelenne Bessette et.al. “Mushrooms of the Southeast”

Chicken of the Woods (Southern Style) Laetiporus…cincinnatus and gilbertsonii var. pallidus

Okay, so this week I’m going to talk about what has become one of my favorite finds in the woods. Once you know what you’re looking for, you’ll see them from quite a distance, and if you’re like me you’ll get a big smile on your face when you do!

At least two varieties occur in my area:

Laetiporus cincinnatus which usually grows at or near the roots of Live Oaks and causes butt or root rot.
Laetiporus gilbertsonii var. pallidus is said to be pale pinkish orange to nearly white and is considered common on dead oaks in the Gulf states. They typically grow higher on the tree in the form of overlapping shelves or brackets. These mushrooms also cause a brown rot. When I’ve found them, I’m pretty sure they have been on dead or dying Live Oaks. Dead oaks? For what it is worth I have seen what I believe to be examples of each within a mile or two of one another near my home in Northeast Florida.

The common name for this group of mushrooms is “Chicken of the Woods” and as mentioned above they seem to grow primarily on Live Oaks in Florida. Our Florida varieties of Chicken of the Woods can go from light yellow, to a much deeper yellow with hints of orange. The inside of the mushroom is white and has a stringy texture like chicken breast when cooked. I know people say lots of things taste like chicken, but seriously… these taste like chicken! I think Chicken of the Woods could make the most convincing vegetarian chicken tacos one could hope for. Unfortunately, mass production would be an issue, so I wouldn’t go out anytime soon looking for “COW” taco specials at your local eatery. Of course, if you are a forager and your local fast food place is a park, forest or property that allows collection, while holding the right trees, then get you some!

COW
The Chicken of the Woods from the pictures below getting the wok treatment.

The inner part of the mushroom closest to the tree can become tough or dry in age with a brittle, mealy texture. The outer edge of the mushroom is where the good stuff is found, so if you find them focus your efforts there! Of course, how much you can harvest from that outer edge depends on the size of the whole specimen, and they can get big. Many pounds of big. You’ll feel the difference between the inner portion of the mushroom and the outer edge when you find one for yourself. If you take only the soft outer edge with a sharp knife, you may be able to come back later for seconds if the conditions remain conducive for growth. If you don’t frequent an area often and you see one I vote for taking it if you are allowed, because if you don’t get it something else probably will. I can say with great confidence that you aren’t the only one in the woods that is looking to capitalize on this delicious resource. The mushrooms will become infested with maggots and/or beetles when the weather conditions are poor for mushroom growth, and I sometimes find these mushrooms with the outer two or three inches of the edges eaten away by squirrels when they are fresh. Squirrels giving us lessons in sustainability? Maybe. I don’t mind sharing with the squirrels, but I hate seeing great food go entirely to the bugs!

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It was growing at base of dead live oak and is a rosette, so should be cincinnatus.
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Nearly this entire mushroom was soft enough to eat!
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Notice two different colors of the Chicken of the Woods in this picture. Not all of the other mushrooms in the basket were edible, or desirable if technically edible.

David Arora states in Mushrooms Demystified that the Chicken of the Wood mushroom is one of the “foolproof four” – an unmistakable mushroom. I have his book and use it for reference, but I don’t know if I’d go that far because there are multiple varieties of chicken, and anything can happen. Then again, I don’t have my own book nor his years on knowledge about mushrooms, so… These are quite distinctive mushrooms so once you have identified them correctly once, you’ll probably be good to go.

According to Kuo on mushroomsexpert.com the group of mushrooms known as Chicken of the Woods are now known to contain at least five different varieties which can act as parasites on living trees or saprobes feeding on decomposing trees. Like bounty hunters in the old west, they’ll take them dead or alive. These mushrooms produce various forms of brown rot, and if you see it on your trees there is not much you can do but monitor the tree for safety hazards. I think you should assume that eventually large branches or possibly the whole tree will become unstable. Your own environmental situation will have to be considered when assessing safety concerns. If you decide that you can allow your tree to die a natural death, enjoy your harvests to come!

There are also northern varieties of Chicken of the Woods that look a bit different from our Florida varieties and I have zero personal experience with them, so I can’t really offer much on those. If you live in the Northeast I have seen it mentioned that you should be wary of Chicken mushrooms growing on conifers. If you live up there, I recommend doing research on that variety so that you recognize it when you see it.

Be safe and as with any edible wild plant or mushroom, eat only a small amount the first time you try. Only try mushrooms or other wild edibles you have researched and feel 100% confident on ID of, and always be sure that you have your specimen identified by an expert before you try it yourself. Even better if you can see them eat it themselves and live to tell you how it was! Occasionally people do show sensitivity to southern varieties of Chicken of the Woods. If you aren’t sensitive, you’re in for a treat! If you live in my area, and see what looks like Chicken of the Woods on your trees, I am happy to check it out for you!

Enjoy your hunt for Chicken of the Woods!

 

 

Reference:

Arora D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi (2nd edition). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-89815-169-4.

Kuo, M. (2017, November). The genus Laetiporus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/laetiporus.htm

 

 

Tramatese Versicolor – Turkey Tail Mushroom

MushroomBear Cubs

 

DisclaimerPlease do not use this site to identify mushrooms for consumption. I am providing my opinions, and very basic information. You need to do your research, speak with local experts, and don’t eat anything you haven’t seen someone else eat, and live to tell about it!

This is a beautiful polypore mushroom, so-named because it has pores on its underside rather than gills. This is where the mushroom produces its spores. The spores fall out of the tubes and are spread by wind, animals, etc. to eventually produce new mushrooms elsewhere. It grows on dead or dying wood. This mushroom is said to have medicinal properties. Compounds from tramatese versicolor are in fact used in cancer treatment and have been shown to kill cancer cells. Also said to help with auto-immune disorders. Compounds in pill form are also used in combination with chemo and are reported to ease some of the sickness felt from chemo treatments. I am not aware of any scientific proof that the mushrooms in their whole natural form kill cancer, or any other illness. That being said, it is unlikely to harm you unless you have an unusual sensitivity to this mushroom, which is possible with any edible or medicinal mushroom, so I myself have made tea with turkey tail and green tea leaves and found it enjoyable. The name comes from the zoned colors, which resemble a turkey’s tail. They also sometimes grow in turkey tail like fans, such as what is pictured above. If they are fresh and the pore surface isn’t white, they aren’t turkey tail mushrooms.
Continue reading Tramatese Versicolor – Turkey Tail Mushroom